Realtime Climate Data
- United States
Sea Surface Temperature (SST)
Nino 1+2, Nino 3, Nino 4 anomaly indices (averaging regions):
- figure: last 12 months, 1990-present; digital values (NCEP)
"Nino" indice standard deviations: How unusual is a 1C anomaly?
- Weekly tropical Pacific total and anomaly | animation (NCEP)
- Daily, weekly, monthly, seasonal analyses and animations (ESRL)
- 5-day mean | monthly mean Tropical Pacific mean and anomaly maps (PMEL)
- Coast and Puget Sound (Use "filters" on left hand side.) (NANOOS)
Land Surface Temperature
- timeseries for the last 30, 90, and 365 days (NCEP)
- hemispheric- and global-means (UEA)
- global means for land only and land + ocean (GISS)
Eq. Pacific Ocean longitude-depth temperature section
- last month (PMEL)
Sea-level Pressure (SLP)
- The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is the difference in normalized SLP anomalies for Tahiti and Darwin (Australia) (Tahiti minus Darwin), and it is an indicator of the atmospheric component of the El Niño / Southern Oscillation phenomenon (ENSO). Negative values of the SOI are associated with above normal sea surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific, and these conditions are commonly called a warm ENSO episode. Positive SOI values are associated with cold Pacific SSTs, and this is called a cold ENSO episode.
500 hPa Geopotential Height Anomalies
Coast and Puget Sound climate, biology, chemistry, and hazards
- Chemical species, salinity, temperature, waves, winds, optical properties, surface currents, turbidity, and sea level (Use "filters" on left hand side.) (NANOOS)
- ESRL: NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
- GISS: NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies
- NANOOS: Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems
- NCEP: NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Prediction Center
- NWS: National Weather Service
- PMEL: NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
- UEA: University of East Anglia
Still more analyses can be found at the
Most of the forecast products are very technical, so non-scientists be warned. Much of the effort in seasonal climate forecasting is expended in forecasting tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs), and in particular, how the SSTs in this region vary from one year to the next. These fluctuations are associated with the El Niño / Southern Oscillation phenomenon (ENSO), which the popular press calls El Niño / La Niña.
Global temperature and precipitation forecasts:
- NCEP Climate Prediction Center forecasts (Somewhat technical)
- International Research Institute for Climate and Society (Somewhat technical)
Tropical Pacific SST forecasts:
- NCEP ENSO advisory (Easiest to understand)
- NCEP Climate Diagnostics Bulletin (Scroll down to the forecast forum; somewhat technical.)
- International Research Institute for Climate and Society
- Linear inverse model (Very technical)
- European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) seasonal coupled ocean-atmosphere model Nino3 SST anomaly (Very technical)
The standard deviation (C) of "Nino3" and "Nino3.4" SST by calendar month (1950-79):
Ed Sarachik initiated a very nice WWW page of different forecast products. (This site and the sites it references are without discussion. Scroll down to get to the forecasts. Very technical)
Typical ENSO climate impacts
What are the present conditions in the equatorial Pacific?
The bottom panel indicates regions of above and below normal SST, and conditions on the equator between 180 and 120Â°W are interpreted in the popular press as "El Niño" (above normal SST, red shading) or "La Niña" (below normal SST, blue shading), respectively. We tend to refer to these variations in the equatorial Pacific SST as warm and cold ENSO episodes, respectively, and we reserve the term "El Niño" to mean the periods of above normal SST along the Peru and Ecuador coast. El Niño and ENSO warm episodes often occur at the same time.
How does the ENSO typically influence the climate in the Pacific Northwest and around the globe?
- Impact on the Pacific Northwest of the United States
- Global Impacts
The following links are in order of increasing technical difficulty:
- Reports to the Nation: El Niño and Climate Prediction
- "El Niño/La Niña, Nature's Vicious Cycle" from National Geographic
A simple description of the primary impacts of warm ENSO episodes on North American climate is presented next. Changes of the climate in the opposite sense are normally observed during cold ENSO episodes.
June through November:
Changes in the number of hurricanes and tropical storms in the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, and eastern Pacific. More hurricanes and tropical storms are found in the eastern Pacific and fewer in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea during ENSO warm episode years, as shown by the daily storm positions in the left panel. ENSO cold episodes, in contrast, are characterized by fewer Pacific and more Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea storms. ENSO does not seem to affect the number of storms in the main Atlantic basin. GIF image | PostScript | JPEG
Still more information on ENSO is available at:
- NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory: lots of near real-time graphics of equatorial Pacific Ocean climate